CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 张皓翔,史蒂芬·奈豪斯,卡洛琳·牛顿.健康蓝色空间设计:将接触感知蓝色空间的健康效益转化为设计实践的方法论框架[J].风景园林,2024,31(7):39-47.
ZHANG H X, NIJHUIS S, NEWTON C. Healthy Blue Space Design: A Methodological Framework for Translating the Health Benefits of Blue Space Exposure and Perception into Design Practices[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(7): 39-47.
Citation: ZHANG H X, NIJHUIS S, NEWTON C. Healthy Blue Space Design: A Methodological Framework for Translating the Health Benefits of Blue Space Exposure and Perception into Design Practices[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(7): 39-47.


Healthy Blue Space Design: A Methodological Framework for Translating the Health Benefits of Blue Space Exposure and Perception into Design Practices

  • 摘要:
    目的 水是人类赖以生存和发展的关键要素。以水为核心的蓝色空间一直以来不断塑造着城市,提供了多样化的生态系统服务。越来越多的证据表明接触感知蓝色空间能够为城市居民带来显著的健康效益。因此,在响应健康城市建设及可持续发展目标的背景下,有必要探讨将接触感知蓝色空间产生的健康效益纳入空间设计实践的可能性。
    方法 基于对核心文献的检索和筛选,系统梳理接触感知蓝色空间以促进人类健康的主要路径,提出将健康证据转译为设计实践的方法论框架。
    结果 基于3种蓝色空间接触感知类型,归纳出4条联系蓝色空间接触感知和公共健康的主要路径:1)促进体力活动;2)降低有害暴露;3)提供心理效益;4)鼓励社会交往。提出了一个将健康证据转译为设计知识的四步方法论框架并结合已有证据和案例进行说明:1)收集主要健康证据;2)提炼关键设计概念;3)划分核心设计要素;4)转译设计原则、空间模式、评估方法。
    结论 根据“分析—综合—评估”设计范式,探讨了从健康证据转化出的设计知识在设计迭代中的应用潜力,反思了方法论框架的双向互动优势,指出实践能够作为启发设计知识和提供健康证据的工具。


    Objective Water could be regarded as a vital element for human existence, which has shaped cities for centuries. Blue spaces, centred around water bodies, play a pivotal role in urban development by delivering various ecosystem services and influencing the design and planning of urban environments. In addition to the numerous benefits and services provided by water, recent research indicates that blue space exposure and perception could also enhance human health and well-being, especially in urban contexts. However, health benefits are often not or implicitly taken into account in design practices. While an increasing number of researchers acknowledge the importance of applying current health evidence to practice, there is currently a lack of specific methodological support to bridge the gap between evidence and actions. Furthermore, given the growing focus on healthy urban living, the demand for the development of healthy cities, and the requirements of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), addressing this gap is of utmost importance at present. Based on the analysis and synthesis of existing evidence, this research aims to propose a conceptual framework that links the health benefits derived from blue space exposure and perception with spatial design practices. The framework attempts to address the current gap and encourage ongoing exploration in future research and practice.
    Methods This research first searches relevant publications on blue space and human health included in the Web of Science Core Collection and Google Scholar during the past five years, and selects the representative ones for detailed analysis and summary. Based on the analysis results, the key pathways linking blue space exposure and perception with human health are identified. Next, a tailored methodological, conceptual framework linking health evidence and design practices is proposed according to the frameworks and evidence in existing studies. Meanwhile, the results of the literature analysis and several Rotterdam cases at different scales are used to demonstrate the application of the framework and illustrate its feasibility.
    Results Based on the results of the literature analysis, three main blue space exposure and perception types are summarized, including indirect perception and exposure, accidental perception and exposure, and intentional perception and exposure. Next, four main pathways linking the exposure to or perception of blue space and human health are identified and briefly discussed, including enhancing physical activities, reducing harmful exposure, benefiting psychological outcomes, and promoting social interactions. Subsequently, a four-step conceptual framework that translates the health evidence into practical design knowledge is proposed. The steps comprise extracting critical health evidence, summarizing key design concepts, categorizing core design elements, and translating into design principles, spatial patterns, and evaluation methods. At first, the research extracts key evidence from 57 representative literature. And then, the research summarizes 42 key design concepts. Next, through an analysis of the similarities and differences between the design concepts, five core design elements are identified, including the quantity, accessibility, visibility, spatial quality, and design process of blue space. Each element contains several specific design concepts. Among them, the first four elements are closely related to the designer’s development of spatial interventions, so this research further translates the four elements into practical design knowledge and illustrates them with Rotterdam cases. Specifically, the quantity, accessibility, and visibility emphasize the objective description of the characteristics of blue space, while spatial quality focuses on people’s subjective perception and experience of blue space. First, the research introduces three design principles aimed at increasing the quantity of blue space and proposes two distinct spatial patterns for each principle. On this basis, two flowcharts of evaluation methods using different types of data are presented, aiming to assess the application effectiveness of principles and patterns. In line with comparable reasoning, three design principles and six spatial patterns are introduced to enhance the accessibility and visibility of blue space. These principles and patterns are formulated across the city, community and individual scales. Moreover, given the intricacy of the evaluation methods, the research directly demonstrates specific method applications at various scales by taking several Rotterdam cases as examples. Finally, two principles and their corresponding spatial patterns for enhancing blue space quality are delineated. Considering the locality of people’s perception of blue space quality, the formulation of principles and patterns on quality is based on a comprehensive analysis of crowdsourced data on physical activities and streetscape in Rotterdam. It is noted that the design principles, spatial patterns, and evaluation methods presented in the research are excerpts of findings drawn from available evidence. Their primary function is to enhance comprehension of the conceptual framework proposed in the research. They can be viewed as open-ended results that will be continually expanded and updated by researchers and practitioners as new evidence emerges and cities develop.
    Conclusion Based on the practical design knowledge translated from the aforementioned framework, including design principles, spatial patterns and evaluation methods, the research delves deeper into the exploration of their potential integration into practical design iterations. Combined with the “Analysis – Synthesis – Evaluation” (ASE) paradigm, the evaluation methods can be applied in both the analysis and evaluation phases, serving the purpose of identifying site problems, assessing the efficacy of potential spatial interventions, and aiding in deciding whether to optimize current interventions. In the synthesis phase, practitioners can utilize design principles and spatial patterns representing generic design knowledge to facilitate the creation of spatial interventions. These interventions, regarded as a form of specific design knowledge, take into account both current site conditions and additional design objectives simultaneously. Due to the complexity of design projects, the “ASE” process may be repeated several times until the final design decision is developed. Furthermore, the conceptual framework in this research has the advantage of being bi-directional, and the design practice may be a creative process of practitioners, which can provide valuable insights for the generation of novel principles and patterns.