CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 张梓墨,刘珊珊,黄晓.画意营造:刘敦桢瞻园叠山的当代实践[J].风景园林,2024,31(8):1-8.
ZHANG Z M, LIU S S, HUANG X. Painterly Landscape Gardening: Liu Dunzhen’ s Contemporary Practice of Rockery Making in Zhan Garden[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(8): 1-8.
Citation: ZHANG Z M, LIU S S, HUANG X. Painterly Landscape Gardening: Liu Dunzhen’ s Contemporary Practice of Rockery Making in Zhan Garden[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(8): 1-8.


Painterly Landscape Gardening: Liu Dunzhen’ s Contemporary Practice of Rockery Making in Zhan Garden

  • 摘要:
    目的/意义 “画意营造”的造园理念确立于晚明,在当代风景园林实践重视延续传统营园智慧的背景下,仍具有应用价值。20世纪50—60年代刘敦桢主持的南京瞻园整修设计,是一次高水准的当代“画意”造园实践,尤其体现在假山部分。
    方法 结合文档搜集法和实地观察法,梳理刘敦桢瞻园“画意”叠山设计的生成过程。
    结果 论证北假山整修参考了画家阎次平的小斧劈皴和倪瓒的折带皴,并借鉴画论营造出高远、深远的画意空间;南假山设计融合了马远和黄公望的画风,通过山池形态和细部叠石营造出峭拔、幽深、自然的意境;西假山溪涧叠石采用黄公望的披麻皴法,呈现圆润柔和的美感。
    结论 刘敦桢的“画意”叠山实践,探索了对石料运用和风格选择的综合调配,为当代造园实践提供了宝贵经验,为传统文化的现代转译提供了有益启示。


    Objective The gardening concept of “painterly landscape gardening” was established in the late Ming Dynasty, and still has application value in the context of the contemporary landscape architecture discipline, which emphasizes the continuation of traditional gardening wisdom in practice. Liu Dunzhen, a pioneer in the research and design of traditional Chinese gardens, consciously used the concept of “painterly landscape gardening” to guide his design of Zhan Garden in Nanjing in the 1950s and 1960s, particularly in terms of rockery making, which complemented his research on classical gardens as indicated in his works Classical Gardens of Suzhou that was carried out during the same period. The results of his research on classical gardens were applied to the design of Zhan Garden, and the practical experience of Zhan Garden was categorized into the framework of his knowledge and research on classical gardens. This research aims to explore the ways in which the concept of “painterly landscape gardening” is applied in Liu Dunzhen’s contemporary practice of rockery making in Zhan Garden.
    Methods The research adopts the methods of document collection and field observation, integrates existing research and information on Zhan Garden, and systematically combs through the process of Liu Dunzhen’ s design and generation in his painterly rockery making. Taking “painterly landscape gardening” as the clue, the research focuses on the restoration and design process of the Phase I project of Zhan Garden, especially the wigwams in the north, south, and west parts of the garden. In combination with the expositions of Liu Dunzhen, Ye Juhua, and other witnesses of Zhan Garden, as well as the design references of relevant painters’ paintings and The Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting, Liu Dunzhen’s design process in terms of rockery making in Zhan Garden is investigated. The research also explores the specific ways for realizing “painterly landscape gardening” in rockery making in Junyuan Garden, including which painters’ styles or paintings Liu Dunzhen chose as references for his rockery making, how to realize the transformation of art forms from paintings to gardens, and how to implement the effects through practical operations during construction.
    Results The results of the research show that in terms of the renovation of the north wigwam in Zhan Garden, Liu Dunzhen referred to the “Small Axe-cut Texture Stroke” painting technique of painter Yan Ziping and the “Bent-ribbon Texture Stroke” painting technique of painter Ni Zan to shape the texture of stones, and created a lofty and profound pictorial space by borrowing from pictorial theories. The design of the south wigwam incorporates the painting styles of painters Ma Yuan and Huang Gongwang, creating a craggy, deep and natural mood through the form of rockery and pool and the detailed stacking of stones. Stacked stones near the stream in the west rockery adopt the “Hemp-fibre Texture Stroke” painting technique of painter Huang Gongwang, presenting a rounded and soft aesthetic feeling. Liu Dunzhen’s practice of painterly rockery making not only explores the comprehensive bending of stone utilization and style selection, but also provides valuable experience for contemporary gardening practice and useful inspirations for the modern translation of traditional culture.
    Conclusion The key to Liu Dunzhen’s painterly rockery making lies in stone utilization and style selection. The process of painterly rockery making can be divided into three steps: Firstly, conceive the appropriate form and style of rockery in combination with real conditions and design needs; secondly, select referential painter(s) and painting style(s) to help clarify the rockery image conceived; lastly, in the process of construction, flexibly adjust the design scheme according to the specific stone materials used, and select texture stroke techniques easy to simulate based on the characteristics of the stone materials used. From the perspective of completion effect, the rockery making in Zhan Garden reflects the influence of painting in all such aspects as layout, form and texture stroke. For example, such painting theories as “three distances” (“sanyuan”) (namely “high distance” (“gaoyuan”), “deep distance” (“shenyuan”), and “even distance” (“pingyuan”)) and scenery levels are adopted to complete the overall layout of rockery and pool, and multiple stone forms such as stone screen, cliff and stone ledge are adopted to create different texture stroke effects at different rockery positions such as Ni Zan’s “Bent-ribbon Texture Stroke”, Yan Ciping’s “Small Axe-cut Texture Stroke”, Ma Yuan’s “Large Axe-cut Texture Stroke”, and Huang Gongwang’s “Hemp-fibre Texture Stroke”. Liu Dunzhen’s design practice of Zhan Garden has been widely praised, and his renovation design of Zhan Garden is not only a concrete practice of his garden research, but also his last and most successful creation. Liu Dunzhen’s practice of painterly rockery making in Zhan Garden demonstrates a high level of modernization of traditional artistic concepts and techniques, and realizes an effective translation of the concept of “pictorialism” into contemporary gardening. Despite some controversies, such as the importance of historical authenticity and artistic expression in the restoration and design process, Liu Dunzhen not only successfully fulfills the design task of Zhan Garden, but also injects the essence of traditional gardens and paintings into the project, contributing to a high-calibre contemporary gardening practice.