CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
“风景园林,不只是一本期刊。”
曹盼,汤佳,周晨,胡希军.避暑山庄内外水系变迁成因探究[J].风景园林,2024,31(4):1-7.
引用本文: 曹盼,汤佳,周晨,胡希军.避暑山庄内外水系变迁成因探究[J].风景园林,2024,31(4):1-7.
CAO P, TANG J, ZHOU C, HU X J. Research on Causes of Water System Changes Inside and Outside the Mountain Resort[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(4): 1-7.
Citation: CAO P, TANG J, ZHOU C, HU X J. Research on Causes of Water System Changes Inside and Outside the Mountain Resort[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(4): 1-7.

避暑山庄内外水系变迁成因探究

Research on Causes of Water System Changes Inside and Outside the Mountain Resort

  • 摘要:
    目的 避暑山庄作为当今存世的最大皇家园林,因其经典的自然山水营构而享有盛誉。自其1703年始建至1911年清朝覆灭,避暑山庄内外水系面貌发生了剧烈的变化,然而水系变迁成因尚缺乏全面而深入的认识。
    方法 梳理出避暑山庄肇建后200余年间的水系面貌变迁历程,利用史料梳理论证与量化计算佐证相结合方法,聚焦于历史上避暑山庄内外水系营建的具体过程,分析山庄引水工程、扩湖工程及河工制度存废对于水系带来的反向制约影响;以历史图档、文档记载为基础,以20世纪80年代最早期的土地利用/土地覆盖遥感监测数据及同时期的承德地区土壤流失情况为依据,从流域的层面探讨了武烈河河道泥沙的来源问题。
    结果 避暑山庄肇建之初设定的引水点河流交汇口区域,频繁的河相变化增加了山庄引水困难;康熙朝施行的扩湖工程,使得山庄东侧的武烈河行洪断面缩减超过50%;围绕避暑山庄展开的“旱河岁修”“河湖清挖”“大河岁修”等制度的订立、完善与废弃历程耦合着山庄内外水系的急剧变迁过程;清晚期以来,武烈河流域内土地滥垦日益严重,1980年流域内的坡耕地产生的土壤流失总量(1 025 422.3 t)与同时期武烈河流域年平均输沙量(1 070 000 t)接近。
    结论 避暑山庄的水系营建工程虽然造就了经典的水景观,但对于山庄水系的消退也起着助推作用,而晚清以来武烈河流域内的坡耕地过垦所带来的水土流失问题,则是造成避暑山庄内外水系变迁的最关键性因素。避暑山庄内外水系变迁成因的历时性考察,是景观遗产多元价值识别的前提,也是挖掘、培育生态智慧的必由之路。

     

    Abstract:
    Objective As the largest royal garden in the world today, the Mountain Resort is renowned for its classic natural landscape construction. From the initial construction of the Mountain Resort in 1703 to the collapse of Qing Dynasty in 1911, the water systems inside and outside the Mountain Resort underwent significant changes. However, the historical process of water system changes inside and outside the Mountain Resort hasn’t been clearly sorted out, and the causes thereof haven’t been researched in depth. These deficiencies have brought obstacles to the comprehensive understanding of the Mountain Resort, and also brought challenges to the recognition of multiple values of landscape heritage.
    Methods This research reviews water system changes inside and outside the Mountain Resort over the past 200 years since its initial construction. The central research topic is developed by using the method of historical data analysis and relevant calculation results with a focus on the specific process of water system construction inside and outside the Mountain Resort in history. Through the interpretation of ancient drawings and documents and the implementation of field investigation, the boundary of the palace wall of the Mountain Resort before the lake expansion project is roughly drawn. Based on the interpretation of the archival records and the principle of river dynamics, the influence of erosion and sediment deposition in the channel confluence on the water diversion area of the Mountain Resort is expounded. According to the changes of the flood section area of the Wulie River before and after the lake expansion project of the Mountain Resort, it can be seen that the flood discharge capacity of the Wulie River has decreased significantly. This research sorts out the river management work during the rapid change of water system inside and outside the Mountain Resort, including the excavation of internal rivers and lakes, the annual maintenance of dry rivers, and the maintenance of external Wulie River channels, and summarizes the general process of the establishment, modification and abandonment of relevant river governance systems, In addition, the restrictive effects of the diversion project, the lake extension project and the river engineering policy on waterscape change are summarized. Based on historical documents and maps, remote sensing data of land use/land cover monitoring in the early 1980s, and the soil loss data in Chengde during the same period, this research discusses the source of river sediment, which is a more important factor causing water system change, from the perspective of Wulie River basin.
    Results Although the water system construction of the Mountain Resort has created a classic waterscape, it has also promoted the water system regression of the Mountain Resort. Specifically, the main water diversion project is located near the confluence of the Lion Ditch and the Wulie River, where the fluvial facies changes are far more frequent than other river sections and river sediment is more likely to accumulate river near the diversion point, leading to the significant accretion of river channel while bringing the risk of diversion channel cut-off. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi in Qing Dynasty, the lake expansion project was implemented to excavate the Mirror Lake and the Silver Lake within the palace wall of the Mountain Resort, which reduced the flood section of the Wulie River on the east side of the Mountain Resort by more than 50%, forming a bottle-neck reach for river discharge, causing backwater and sedimentation in the upper reaches of the Mountain Resort, and raising the river bed year by year. The establishment, improvement and abandonment of such systems as “annual repair of dry river”, “river and lake dredging ” and, “annual repair of major river” with respect to the Mountain Resort, coupled with the rapid water system change inside and outside the Mountain Resort, played a non-negligible role in the decline of local waterscape. Based on historical archives and photographic images, it can be found that since the middle and late Qing Dynasty, the problem of land overdevelopment in the Wulie River basin has become more and more serious. According to the annual soil loss scale of cultivated land at different slopes in Chengde compiled by Chengde Institute of Soil and Water Conservation in the 1980s, and relevant combined with DEM data and the earliest remote sensing data of land use/land cover in China in the same period, it is calculated that the total amount of annual soil loss of cultivated land in the Wulie River basin is about 1,025,422.3 t, roughly equivalent to the annual total mean sediment runoff of the Wulie River basin collected by Chengde Hydrographic Station in the 1970s, which is about 1,070,000 t.
    Conclusion Despite its creation of a classic waterscape, the water-related construction of the Mountain Resort also plays a significant role in the disappearance of water systems inside and outside the Mountain Resort. However, since the late Qing Dynasty, the serious soil and water loss arising from the overcultivation in the Wulie River basin is the most critical factor causing the water system changes inside and outside the Mountain resort, which serves as a precious sample of the temporal and spatial changes of landscape. An in-depth research on the causes of such changes is the prerequisite for the recognition of multiple values of landscape heritage, and also an important way to excavate and cultivate the ecological wisdom.

     

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