CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 张丽丽,郝培尧,董丽,王应临.基于自生植物的城市公园草本层养护管理优化策略:以北京市西城区为例[J].风景园林,2024,31(6):46-54.
ZHANG L L, HAO P Y, DONG L, WANG Y L. Optimization Strategy for Maintenance Management of Herbaceous Layer in Urban Parks Based on Spontaneous Plants: A Case Study of Xicheng District, Beijing[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(6): 46-54.
Citation: ZHANG L L, HAO P Y, DONG L, WANG Y L. Optimization Strategy for Maintenance Management of Herbaceous Layer in Urban Parks Based on Spontaneous Plants: A Case Study of Xicheng District, Beijing[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(6): 46-54.


Optimization Strategy for Maintenance Management of Herbaceous Layer in Urban Parks Based on Spontaneous Plants: A Case Study of Xicheng District, Beijing

  • 摘要:
    目的 中国城市绿地建设迎来低碳发展的关键时期,自生植物的应用为解决城市公园植物景观养护管理成本高昂及生物多样性下降等问题提供了有效途径。然而,关于自生植物与城市公园养护管理之间相互影响关系及相应管理策略的研究尚不足。
    方法 以北京市西城区13个城市公园为例,在梳理国内外养护管理政策及发展现状的基础上,通过文献收集和实地踏勘,分析不同类型公园养护管理差异对自生植物物种组成、多样性及群落组成的影响。
    结果 1)城市公园养护管理措施因公园类型而存在差异,主要体现在除草和修剪措施上;2)实地踏勘共记录自生植物17科32属36种,近自然公园物种数最多;不同公园养护管理差异对于自生植物丰富度和多样性的影响无显著差异;但对均匀度的影响存在显著差异,大型传统公园的均匀度最高;此外,近自然公园以多年生植物群落为主,传统公园以一、二年生植物群落为主;3)城市公园养护管理面临缺乏差异化的养护管理技术措施、亟须重视自生植物群落的应用两大问题;4)提出适用于不同类型公园的养护管理工作优化策略。
    结论 研究结果可以为城市公园养护管理工作变革提供新的思路和方向,有效促进城市低碳可持续发展建设。


    Objective With climate change and other environmental problems becoming increasingly severe, the construction of China’ s ecological civilization has entered a critical period of green, low-carbon and circular development. Although garden plants are a key link in the carbon cycle of urban ecosystems, most of the plants cultivated in urban parks are ornamental ones that entail long-term, high-intensity maintenance management, which often consumes a large amount of resources and makes it difficult to balance the carbon emissions generated by human life. In this context, how to obtain maximum ecological benefits with minimum resource consumption has become an urgent task for the transformation and development of urban green space, and the resource saving rate and energy saving and emission reduction benefits of urban parks have become the focus of attention. Near-natural parks, as an effective solution, typically select low-maintenance or even self-maintained native plants with compound, heterogeneous and mixed community structures, and these parks only entail low-maintenance management. Meanwhile, self-maintained plants, as widespread urban native plants, do not require much maintenance management, and this feature, combined with the concept of low-cost management, has made them the ideal plant material used in near-natural parks and the focus of attention in traditional parks. The emergence of low-carbon gardens has put forward new ideas to meet the needs of low-carbon development, and near-natural parks are an important practice of low-carbon gardens that aim to explore the high carbon sink benefits of spontaneous plants during the planting, maintenance, and construction of plantscape dominated by native plant communities. Spontaneous plants are usually regarded as weeds, existing in areas of spontaneous growth in urban parks without proper care and management, and are the main targets for gardeners to remove.
    Methods Taking the 13 urban parks in Xicheng District, Beijing as an example, this research, on the basis of combing domestic and international maintenance management policies and the current development situation, analyzes the impacts of the differences in the maintenance management of different types of parks on the species composition, diversity and community composition of spontaneous plants through the research methods of literature collection and field investigation, and puts forward a maintenance management system that is suitable for different types of parks.
    Results Research findings are summarized as follows. 1) Urban parks in Xicheng District differ in terms of maintenance management strategies depending on the type of park. Near-natural parks and traditional parks differ primarily in terms of weeding and pruning, with the former not doing so to preserve the natural state of plants and the latter doing so on a regular basis to preserve the overall landscape effect. At other levels, such as irrigation, fertilizer application, and pest control, there are no appreciable differences between the two types of parks. 2) A total of 36 species of spontaneous plants classified into 32 genera under 17 families are recorded, with the near-natural parks having the highest number of species; under the influence of varying maintenance management, there is no discernible difference in the richness and diversity of spontaneous plants among the various park types, with the near-natural parks having the highest mean value; the spontaneous plant communities are impacted by the differences in maintenance management in terms of the composition of plant species, with traditional parks being dominated by annual or biannual plant communities and near-natural parks dominated by perennial plant communities; nevertheless, there is a significant difference in the homogeneity of the spontaneous plants, with large-scale traditional parks having the largest mean value. 3) Urban park maintenance management has two primary problems and difficulties: First, it is challenging to meet the needs of low-carbon development in urban parks due to the lack of specialized technical solutions for maintenance management and the obvious shortcomings in the application of policy measures in maintenance management; second, all types of parks contain spontaneous plants, which have large potential for gardening uses. It is critical to focus on applying spontaneous plant communities along with various maintenance management techniques and strategies to create plant communities that are appropriate for various environments. Based on the above findings, the research proposes the following optimization strategies for maintenance management applicable to different types of parks: clarify the maintenance management system; modify the species composition of plant communities; improve technical measures for maintenance management.
    Conclusion This research emphasizes the key role of spontaneous plants in the maintenance management of urban parks, and the research results may provide new ideas and directions for the reform of park management, thus effectively promoting the low-carbon sustainable urban development.