CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 戴林琳,封昌炜.区县国土空间碳收支核算及其规划响应:以天津市武清区为例[J].风景园林,2024,31(7):1-10.
DAI L L, FENG C W. Carbon Budget Accounting of Territorial Space and Planning Response at County/District Level: A Case Study of Wuqing District, Tianjin City[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(7): 1-10.
Citation: DAI L L, FENG C W. Carbon Budget Accounting of Territorial Space and Planning Response at County/District Level: A Case Study of Wuqing District, Tianjin City[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(7): 1-10.


Carbon Budget Accounting of Territorial Space and Planning Response at County/District Level: A Case Study of Wuqing District, Tianjin City

  • 摘要:
    目的 国土空间规划是实现“双碳”目标的重要抓手。明确区县单元的碳源碳汇核算和碳评价方法,有助于区县级国土空间规划摸清“碳底数”,从而为区县“减排增汇”策略的制定提供支撑。
    方法 利用碳排放(吸收)系数法和层次分析法,构建区县域碳源、碳汇核算与碳评价模型,并以天津市武清区为例进行规划应用的实证研究。
    结果 武清区全域碳平衡存在显著失衡,中心城区在碳源消纳方面起消极作用,武清区东部、中西部、中北部街镇在全区碳源消纳中起积极作用。武清区街镇的碳评价结果可分为5级,全区低碳状态自中心城区向外呈“差—优—差”的圈层分布,越靠近武清中心城区和北京通州区的街镇,低碳表现越差。
    结论 武清区中心城区的人口集聚程度高、建设用地占比高,且发挥碳汇作用的沟渠、坑塘、林地等用地面积小,导致碳源集中。武清区东部、中西部、中北部街镇的生态相关用地碳汇作用明显。从碳评价结果看,需同时重视碳“减排”和碳“增汇”,才能改善街镇的低碳状态。武清区国土空间规划应依据各街镇的碳评价级别,结合各街镇的不同发展特征,分别制定低碳规划目标,分解传导规划指标,优化空间总体格局,引导产业低碳转型,推动全区高质量发展。


    Objective As an important tool for optimizing the national spatial pattern, national territorial spatial planning has become a policy lever for promoting the achievement of the “dual carbon” goals. However, from the current practice of national territorial spatial planning in various regions, there is still a lack of consensus on how to implement the “dual carbon” goals in planning. From the perspective of the planning process, “dual evaluation” as a prerequisite research for national territorial spatial planning is crucial for clarifying the background conditions of national territorial spatial planning. However, the existing guidelines and practices for “dual evaluation” often do not involve relevant content. From the results of national territorial spatial planning at all levels, there are relatively few implementation plans directly implemented into national territorial spatial planning. From the perspective of planning hierarchy, the district and county levels are the key levels for implementing upper level planning and ensuring smooth planning transmission. However, there has been relatively little research on the planning response to the dual carbon goals in the national territorial spatial planning at districts and counties levels. In summary, this study aims to clarify the carbon source and sink accounting and carbon evaluation methods for district and county units, by using Wuqing District, Tianjin as an empirical example. The major purpose is to help the district and county level national territorial spatial planning understand the “carbon” related inventory and provide support for the formulation of “emission reduction and sink increase” strategies.
    Methods Firstly, based on the land types of the third national land survey (hereinafter referred to as the “Third Surveys”) in Wuqing District, Tianjin, the carbon source and carbon sink calculation list was clarified. The carbon emission/absorption coefficient method was used to calculate the total carbon source and carbon sink of the district and county units based on the list. An Analytic Hierarchy Process is performed to construct a carbon evaluation model, and comprehensively evaluate the carbon balance of each town/sub-district under its jurisdiction based on data such as total carbon source and sink, population, land use, and economy. Based on the carbon evaluation score, the low-carbon status of the town/sub-districts is graded, and the grading results are finally used to assist the pattern optimization, indicator decomposition, and high-quality development strategy content in the planning scheme.
    Results From the perspective of carbon sources, the main source of carbon comes from construction land, while the proportion of carbon sources from farmland is relatively low. From the perspective of carbon sequestration, farmland, ditches, and wetlands have a higher amount of carbon absorption. From the perspective of carbon balance, there is a significant imbalance in the overall carbon balance of Wuqing District. The central urban area and Gaocun Town and Dawangguzhuang Town, which border Tongzhou in the north, play a negative role in carbon source consumption. Town/sub-districts in the eastern, central and western parts, and central and northern parts of Wuqing District play a positive role in carbon source consumption throughout the district. In recent years, the Beijing Tianjin Hebei urban agglomeration has implemented expansion control of construction land in cross-border areas around the capital and put forward higher-level requirements for ecological restoration in border areas. The new master planning of Wuqing District have also implemented the above requirements, and towns near Tongzhou in Beijing have great potential in reducing emissions and increasing sequestration in the future. From the carbon evaluation results, the streets and towns in Wuqing District can be divided into five levels according to the carbon evaluation results. The low-carbon status of the entire district is distributed in a circle of “poor good poor” from the central urban area to the outside. The closer the town/sub-districts are to the central urban area of Wuqing and Tongzhou in Beijing, the worse their low-carbon performance.
    Conclusion Due to population agglomeration, high proportion of construction land, and limited use of ditches, ponds, forests and other land that play a carbon sink role, the central urban area has led to carbon source concentration. The proportion of ecological related land in the eastern, central and western, and central northern parts of Wuqing District is relatively high, resulting in a significant carbon sequestration effect. From the carbon evaluation results, it is necessary to pay attention to both “carbon emission reduction” and “carbon sink increase” to improve the low-carbon status of town/sub-districts. Based on the above research conclusions, the land spatial planning of Wuqing District should be based on the carbon evaluation level of each town/sub-district, combined with the development characteristics of the town/sub-district, and formulate low-carbon planning goals tailored to local conditions; In the indicator decomposition of the entire district, the central urban area and peripheral town/sub-districts are divided into two zones for differentiation and consideration. Carbon evaluation levels are used to decompose construction land indicators within each zone, and only additional factors are considered between zones; Digging the potential of existing inefficient urban land, adopting land conservation measures to develop and utilize existing construction land, in order to achieve an intensive land spatial overall pattern in Wuqing District that guarantees urban development needs and slows down carbon source growth. Combined with special plans such as green spaces and greenways, green spaces are inserted to increase the area and density of urban green spaces; For the national level industrial parks in the central urban area, a green industry innovation fund will be established to inject funds and focus on helping street and town industrial parks with poor low-carbon status to implement low-carbon transformation measures such as technological upgrading, reduce carbon emissions, and improve resource utilization efficiency. Other town/sub-district industrial parks will formulate supporting policies such as reward and punishment systems based on carbon evaluation results and industrial output value, enhancing the enthusiasm and implementation supervision of low-carbon industrial transformation in various streets and towns.