CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 吴尤,章明.基于城市建成环境再生的风景园林知识体系拓展[J].风景园林,2024,31(3):51-59.
WU Y, ZHANG M. Expansion of Landscape Architecture Body of Knowledge Based on the Regeneration of Urban Built Environment[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(3): 51-59.
Citation: WU Y, ZHANG M. Expansion of Landscape Architecture Body of Knowledge Based on the Regeneration of Urban Built Environment[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(3): 51-59.


Expansion of Landscape Architecture Body of Knowledge Based on the Regeneration of Urban Built Environment

  • 摘要:
    目的 基于新时期中国城市发展阶段的模式转型,以及风景园林学科的学科定位调整,拓展面向建成环境再生的风景园林知识体系,有助于进一步发挥风景园林规划设计实践在建成环境再生中的引领作用。
    方法 在理论上,结合场域理论(field theory)和景观都市主义(landscape urbanism),指出城市建成环境再生范式的三大转变,即“场域”关系的视角转变、城市更新的路径转变、设计主体的身份转变。在实践上,依托从上海“一江一河”到全国“大江大河”的滨水空间营造、街区综合环境提升,以及城市基础设施复合化与景观化的大量实践,深化建成环境再生的“六维空间再生体系”。
    结果 强化理论与实践层面对风景园林知识体系拓展的影响,包括空间营造的系统性知识、历史文脉的文化性知识、基础设施的复合性知识、场景节点的建构性知识、环境修复的生态性知识和公共空间的艺术性知识。
    结论 倡导“大设计观”下多学科、多领域、多工种的设计跨界与融合,优化范式转变下的风景园林知识体系的拓展路径,推动风景园林共同体为建成环境再生创造新价值、新范式。


    Objective Based on the paradigm transformation of China’s urban development stage in the new period, and the orientation adjustment of the landscape architecture discipline, this research aims to expand the landscape architecture body of knowledge oriented to the regeneration of urban built environment, and to further promote the core areas of the landscape architecture body of knowledge based on the practice of landscape planning and design.
    Methods At the theoretical level, this research combines field theory and landscape urbanism. Field theory can be regarded as a new model of urban theory, which translates the theoretical framework of field theory into “symbolic space”, “social space”, and “physical space”. Field theory provides a dynamic framework for understanding social structure and power. The elements of “field” for regenerating urban built environment include both material placemaking and non-material urban systems. Landscape architecture needs to expand its body of knowledge in two ways: First, focus on the underlying multidimensional elements; second, explore the operational mechanisms among the elements of urban built environment. Then, this research points out three major shifts in the new paradigm for regeneration of urban built environment: 1) A shift in the perspective of the “field” relationship; 2) a shift in the path of urban regeneration; 3) a shift in the identity of designer. The shift in the perspective of urban regeneration has brought about a new path adjustment, which is specifically divided into three levels, namely regeneration mode, regeneration system and practice dimension. Landscape architecture should play a leading role in urban built environment with the background of urban regeneration, and landscape architects as the main body of design should gradually play the role of coordinator and harmonizer. In practice, relying on the construction of waterfront spaces and the comprehensive improvement of built environment along the Huangpu River and the Suzhou Creek in Shanghai and other major rivers nationwide, as well as a lot of practice in integration and landscaping of urban infrastructure, a “six-dimensional spatial regeneration system” targeting the regeneration of urban built environment has been developed. From the perspective change towards the regeneration of urban built environment, to the path change of urban regeneration, and to the identity change of landscape architect, a positive feedback loop of “macro – meso – micro” realms has been constructed, and the body of knowledge required for landscape architecture has been continuously expanded.
    Results This research proposes to, by virtue of the advantages of the landscape architecture discipline, break through professional boundaries, break down departmental barriers, and integrate multiple resources to strengthen the influence of the theoretical and practical levels on the expansion of the landscape architecture body of knowledge, which involves the following six aspects. 1) Systematic knowledge of placemaking. The basic framework for the expansion of the body of knowledge towards the regeneration of built environment is constructed. For spatial construction regarding the regeneration of built environment, it is necessary to combine with urban design thinking to strengthen the comprehensive, holistic, systematic and three-dimensional integration of multiple elements. 2) Cultural knowledge of historical context. The “mixed nature” of built environment is actually the external manifestation of the richness of the city, and in the face of the complex conditions and information of the city, it is a challenging task to sort out and continue the “cultural genes” of the city, and it is necessary to take into account the historical landscape and urban life, and realize the combination of the physical environment and living scenes. 3) Integration knowledge of infrastructure. Under the stock development mode, the integration and landscaping of infrastructure is an important trend in the regeneration of urban built environment, especially in the coupling of urban infrastructure and public space, which can realize multiple benefits. 4) Constructive knowledge of scene nodes. The creation of scene nodes is indispensable for systematic spatial construction, which leads to the comprehensive enhancement of a larger area, so that different nodes together constitute a scene that serves the daily life. 5) Ecological knowledge of environmental restoration. Ecological restoration in high-density built environment faces unique environmental conditions and often faces more constraints, and landscape architecture has great potential in ecological restoration. 6) Artistic knowledge of public space. It suggests to shift from city beautifying by art to city shaping by implementing art, to give full play to the value of landscape architecture in “aesthetic education”, to implement art and culture into daily life, and to improve the quality of urban public space through comprehensive means for spatial construction.
    Conclusion Advocating the cross-border design and multidisciplinary integration, the “whole design” concept may help optimize the path for expanding the landscape architecture body of knowledge in the context of paradigm shift, and promote the community of landscape architecture to create new values and paradigms for the regeneration of urban built environment.