CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 成玉宁,方煜昊.关于风景园林专业学位与知识体系的思考[J].风景园林,2024,31(3):12-16.
CHENG Y N, FANG Y H. Reflections on Professional Degree of Landscape Architecture and Landscape Architecture Body of Knowledge[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(3): 12-16.
Citation: CHENG Y N, FANG Y H. Reflections on Professional Degree of Landscape Architecture and Landscape Architecture Body of Knowledge[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(3): 12-16.


Reflections on Professional Degree of Landscape Architecture and Landscape Architecture Body of Knowledge

  • 摘要:
    目的 中国风景园林教育事业进入新的发展阶段,在专业学位背景下,风景园林知识体系亟待梳理与反思。
    方法/过程 基于专业学位教育特点,剖析国家政策、社会需求,重新系统认知风景园林专业学位:从培养目标、知识类型、知识层级与知识结构4个方面探讨风景园林专业学位与知识体系的内涵及发展方向。现代风景园林专业人才培养的核心在于对实践智慧与能力的培养,专业知识类型势必从过去以经验知识为主体转变为以科学知识与规律为主体。科学、艺术与技术3种类型知识的融合是专业发展与人才培养的基础。学士、硕士与博士三级人才培养模式体现出风景园林专业知识的层级属性,据此处理好专业知识体系中内涵与外延的结构关系是推动专业发展的根本问题。
    结果/结论 面对风景园林专业乃至思维范式的革新,应按照专业知识生产与组构的特定规律,探索风景园林专业未来可持续发展的有效路径。


    Objective China’s landscape architecture education has entered a new development stage, and in the context of professional degree, the landscape architecture body of knowledge is in urgent need of combing and reflection. With the gradual deepening of China’s higher education reform, adjusting the first-level discipline of landscape architecture into a professional degree, which can be conferred at the doctoral and master’s levels. This adjustment marks that the landscape architecture discipline takes the lead in implementing professional degree training among many similar application-oriented disciplines, which aims not only to explore the new development direction of landscape architecture education, but also to guide the development of similar professions. Under the new situation, it is urgent to explore the cultivation mode of high-level talents in landscape architecture, and to build a knowledge system that conforms to the professional education of landscape architecture.
    Methods/process Based on the professional degree education, this research analyzes the national policy, social demand and systematic cognition of landscape architecture degree, and constructs a professional landscape architecture body of knowledge from the four aspects of cultivation objective, knowledge type, knowledge level and knowledge structure. Firstly, from the perspective of cultivation objective. The core of the cultivation of professional talents in landscape architecture lies in the cultivation of practical intelligence, and the main type of professional knowledge will inevitably change from empirical knowledge to scientific knowledge and laws. Academic degree training focuses on scientific research ability, requiring the mastery of solid theoretical foundation and academic knowledge, while professional degree training of applied talents requires students not only to master solid theoretical knowledge, but also to have the ability of practical application and innovation and the ability to cope with complex practical problems. The knowledge production model proposed by M. Gibbons and others explains, to a certain extent, the transformation trend of global knowledge production model, namely from “I” to “II” or even to “III”, which reflects that with the development of society and technology, higher education becomes increasingly differentiated and mature. Secondly, from the perspective of knowledge type. The transformation of landscape architecture discipline means that the type of knowledge constituting the discipline’s knowledge system is no longer purely academic knowledge, making it necessary for modern landscape architecture to pay more attention to the production of practical knowledge, and to organically integrate the three types of knowledge of science, art and technology to cultivate professionals with the wisdom and ability of landscape architecture practice. Professional degree education is featured by relatively unique mode and distinctive knowledge composition. Thirdly, from the perspective of knowledge level. The professional degree of landscape architecture involves the three training levels of bachelor’s degree, master’s degree and doctoral degree that vary in cultivation objective, method and approach. Therefore, the landscape architecture body of knowledge that supports the cultivation of talents has a common composition axis extending from bachelor’s degree to master’s degree and doctoral degree, which is closely related to the cultivation of practical wisdom and ability. Fourthly, from the perspective of knowledge structure, it is supposed to explore the talent training and professional development of landscape architecture, focus on the professional ontology, clarify the knowledge structure, proactively adapt to the needs of high-quality development of human settlement environment and ecological landscape, properly dealing with the connection between landscape architecture and science & technology and culture & art, and optimize and reshape the knowledge structure of landscape architecture.
    Results/conclusion  Maintaining a relatively stable core knowledge structure and system is a sign of professional maturity, which together with the constantly enriched and perfected epitaxial knowledge constitutes the knowledge structure of landscape architecture, and it is beneficial for the landscape architecture specialty to properly deal with the stability and derivativeness of the knowledge structure of landscape architecture. Properly handling the “stability” and “derivativeness” of the knowledge structure of landscape architecture is conducive to the development and growth of the landscape architecture specialty. It is believed that landscape architecture, should explore a path of healthy development in accordance with the specific law of professional knowledge system: Firstly, cognize the professional attributes rationally, clarify the development direction, adhere to the professional ontology and development axis, and build up the kernel of the knowledge system; secondly, actively respond to the social development needs, strengthen the practical characteristics of the profession, and build up the core of the knowledge system; thirdly, actively respond to the needs of social development, strengthen the practice characteristics of the landscape architecture specialty, and enhance the vitality of the specialty while serving the society; fourthly, properly handle the mission and strategy of landscape architecture education, optimize the professional knowledge system and curriculum structure, and promote the formation of a self-improvement mechanism of landscape architecture; fifthly, the professional knowledge system is complete and systematic, with the part thereof responding to the social practice being resilient and diverse, so in order to promote the development of the landscape architecture specialty, it is necessary to properly deal with the relationship between specialization and integration.