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乡野杂草多样性特征与保护策略——以四川东北丘陵区蚕华山村为例
陈鸿飞, 袁兴中, 李沛吾, 林佳琪
重庆大学
摘要:
【目的】乡野杂草是乡村生物多样性的重要组成部分,更是乡村生态系统的核心生物要素。长期以来,乡野杂草多样性的科学价值未得到足够重视,研究乡野杂草多样性特征及维持机制,并提出乡野杂草多样性保护策略,是乡村生物多样保护亟待解决的科学问题。【方法】选取四川东北丘陵区域典型传统村落蚕华山村为研究区域,对村落内乡野杂草种类及分布情况进行定性及定量调查。【结果】共记录乡野杂草65科188属263种,分布在院落、农田、水塘、沟渠、篱笆、崖壁、片林等21种不同类型的乡村生境中。分析发现,影响乡野杂草分布的主要环境因子为光照强度和土壤含水量,丰富多样的乡村生境类型为乡野杂草生长提供了多样化水热组合条件,而乡村生境多样性的维持与乡村生产生活方式密切相关。【结论】基于实证研究结果,在分析乡野杂草多样性维持机制的基础上,提出5项乡野杂草多样性保护策略:1)合理布局“三生”空间;2)修复重建“丘-田-林-塘-居”单元;3)保护乡村小微生境及构建立体生境网络;4)选用乡野杂草恢复乡村植被;5)传承传统乡村生态智慧。
关键词:  风景园林  生物多样性  乡村生境  乡野杂草  维持机制  保护策略  川东北
DOI:10.12409/j.fjyl.202212010676
分类号:TU986
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目“乡村景观中小微湿地网络及其调控机理研究”(编号 52178031);国家自然科学基金重点项目“宜居城乡景观生态规划理论与方法——以西南山地为例”(编号 52238003)
Diversity Characteristics and Conservation Strategies of Rural Weeds: A Case Study of Canhuashan Village in Hilly Region of Northeast Sichuan
CHEN Hongfei, YUAN Xingzhong, LI Peiwu, LIN Jiaqi
Chongqing University
Abstract:
[Objective] Rural weeds refer to all wild weeds distributed in rural areas dominated by rural native herbs, which are an important part of rural biodiversity. However, the rapid development of rural urbanization and agricultural intensification has seriously threatened rural weed diversity and traditional rural habitats, but the scientific value of rural weed diversity still has not been attached with sufficient importance currently. Specifically, there are three research gaps at present. Firstly, existing researches on rural biodiversity mainly focus on the relationship between spatial patterns and biodiversity changes in urban and rural areas at the macroscopic scale, rarely considering the spatial and temporal evolution of rural biodiversity at the small and medium scales. Secondly, the traditional conservation and restoration of herbaceous communities and habitats are concentrated in urban and suburban areas, and there exist only limited quantitative researches on rural herbaceous communities. Besides, although it is uncommon to see the discussion of the characteristics of plant diversity and influencing factors thereof in a single or a specific habitat in previous researches, the integrity of rural ecosystems and the response mechanism of rural weeds to environmental influencing factors in rural habitats are seldom involved. To address the above-mentioned problems, this research proposes to identify the characteristics of rural weed diversity, explore the maintenance mechanism of rural weed diversity, and provide strategies for conservation of rural weed diversity, which are three crucial issues in rural biodiversity conservation. [Methods] This research selects a typical traditional village named “Canhuashan Village” in the hilly region of northeastern Sichuan as the research area, and conducts both qualitative and quantitative surveys to investigate the species and distribution of rural weeds in the research area. A total of four field surveys were conducted from October 2016 to August 2017 in the research area to record the characteristics of rural habitats and the distribution of rural weed species. The research selects several representative rural habitats for quantitative survey of native weed communities, with 48 fixed survey sample points being set up, and three 1 m×1 m quadrats being randomly demarcated in each survey sample point to record the species, abundance, height and coverage of native weeds therein. In addition, the research selects the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the species evenness index to compare the diversity difference of native weeds in different habitats, and adopts the Jaccard similarity index to analyze the similarity in species composition of rural weeds. Finally, the research analyzes the species similarity among habitats by clustering, analyzes the main environmental factors influencing the distribution of rural weeds according to the ecological characteristics of different habitats and native weeds distributed therein by canonical correlation analysis, and then analyzes the maintenance mechanism of rural weed diversity. [Results] The research records a total of 263 species (188 genera, 65 families) of rural weeds in 21 different rural habitats, including 9 habitats around rural settlements (e.g., courtyards, roofs, wells and hedges), 9 habitats away from rural settlements (e.g., farmlands, ponds, ditches and field paths), and 3 marginal habitats (e.g., precipices, cliff forests and abandoned cultivated fields). The results show that the habitats with some specific moisture and light conditions, such as ponds and patch forests, have special species distribution patterns and relatively high species richness. Due to the long-term influence of both the natural environment and human activities on traditional rural ecosystems, various rural habitats with vernacular characteristics have been formed in different rural areas, providing suitable growth conditions for weeds. In addition, the results also show that illumination intensity and soil water content are the main environmental factors influencing the distribution and diversity of rural weeds. The existence of different rural production and life modes gives birth to and maintains diverse rural habitats, and presents different distribution patterns of ecological factors such as illumination and water. diversity, and special rural habitats maintain specific rural weed species. Furthermore, the research proposes the following strategies for the conservation of rural weed diversity based on the analysis of the maintenance mechanism of rural weed diversity: 1) Maintain a variety of rural habitats through the reasonable layout of rural “production-living-ecological” spaces; 2) restore and reconstruct the basic rural units of “hill-farmland-forest-pond-courtyard” for rural weed conservation; 3) protect rural small and micro habitats and build a three-dimensional habitat network in the rural area; 4) strengthen the application of rural weeds to restore natural vegetation; 5) inherit traditional rural ecological wisdom to promote effective conservation of rural weed diversity.
Key words:  landscape architecture  biodiversity  rural habitat  rural weed  maintenance mechanism  conservation strategy  northeast Sichuan
引用本文:陈鸿飞,袁兴中,李沛吾,林佳琪.乡野杂草多样性特征与保护策略——以四川东北丘陵区蚕华山村为例[J].风景园林,2023,30(4):34-42.
CHEN Hongfei,YUAN Xingzhong,LI Peiwu,LIN Jiaqi.Diversity Characteristics and Conservation Strategies of Rural Weeds: A Case Study of Canhuashan Village in Hilly Region of Northeast Sichuan[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2023, 30(4):34-42.